Perspectives in Vector Vaccines Development

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Abstract

Scientists’ dream since early 1980s became reality when the fi rst vector vaccine for the poultry industry was licensed in the United States in 1994, which is CEVA’s fowlpox virus (FPV) vector Newcastle disease (ND) vaccine. 

Since then, especially in the 21st century, we have seen more and more vector vaccines reaching the market; there have been at least 15 licensed vector vaccines just for poultry and CEVA owns 7 of them using FPV and turkey herpesvirus (HVT) as vectors for Newcastle disease, laryngotracheitis, infectious bursal disease, avian influenza, and mycoplasmosis Vector vaccines have been accepted in the animal health industry as an excellent tool to combat various infectious diseases and billions of doses of vector vaccines have been used all over the world.

Since the introduction of the first vector vaccine in 1994, we have learned a great deal about these vector vaccines, including their benefits, behaviour, types of immunity they can provide, as well as limitations Advantages vector vaccines offer include safety, ease of administration and their ability to tailor immune responses to particular pathogens We also have learned that certain vectors are susceptible to preexisting immunity and mixing two vector vaccines with the same vector backbone may affect their efficacy. 

To overcome the limitations and to answer feedbacks from the field, we have continued to work on improvement of current vector  vaccines as well as development of new generation vector vaccines. Rapid advances in molecular biology techniques and accumulation of knowledge on immunology and vaccinology have enabled us to imagine novel vector vaccines based on new technologies and new concepts. They may include multivalent vector vaccines against three or more diseases, novel vectors such as bacterial vectors or mucosal vectors, and use of immunomodulators such as cytokines and pathogenassociated molecular patterns (PAMPs) Characteristics of currently available vector vaccines and possible features of next generation vector vaccines will be discussed.

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